Common causes of low back pain can include injury to the discs, ligaments, facet joints and surrounding muscles. Compression or irritation of the spinal nerves can give rise to pain and/or pins and needles down the leg, commonly known as sciatica. Poor posture and weakness of the core stabilising muscles is a common contributor to low back pain. Degenerative changes to the discs and joints of the spine are a common finding with increasing age.


One of the most common injuries to the hip is gluteal tendinopathy. This is an overuse injury causing damage to the gluteus medius tendon at its insertion into the greater trochanter (outside of the hip). It is very common in women over the of 40. Typically sufferers complain of pain on walking, lying on their side (either the affected side or the good side) and crossing their legs. A similar condition often confused with gluteal tendinopathy is  trochanteric bursitis. This refers to an inflammation of the bursa (a fluid filled sac sitting between the tendon and the bone that provides cushioning and reduces friction). Pain is felt on the outside of the hip, typically right over the bony prominence with pain referring down the outside of the thigh. More often than not the main cause of lateral hip pain relates to gluteal tendinopathy, with the bursitis a secondary injury. A hip labral tear occurs when there is a tear in the cartilage surrounding the hip joint. This can cause pain in the hip, groin or buttocks and a clicking or catching sensation. Most often this will resolve with conservative treatment, including physio, but sometimes surgery is required. Osteoarthritis is a common condition affecting the hip, as it is a large weight-bearing joint. Groin strains, a muscular tear or rupture to the adductor muscle group (groin muscles), are a common cause of pain felt in the upper groin region. 


Sacroliliac joint dysfunction refers to abnormality in the joints at the base of your spine, where your sacrum (bony area just above your tailbone) meets your pelvic bones. This can commonly cause low back, hip and buttock pain. Osteitis Pubis is an overuse injury characterised by damage and inflammation to the area of the pelvis where the two pubic bones meet (pubic symphysis). This presents as pain in the groin area.