Patellofemoral Pain

This condition refers to pain originating from the joint between the patella (knee cap) and the femur (thigh bone). Sufferers typically complain of pain in the front of the knee that is hard to localise. It is aggravated by activities such as walking up and down stairs, squatting and sitting for long periods of time. It is thought to be caused by mal-tracking of the patella in the grove of the femur when the knee is bent and straightened. Several biomechanical factors, including alignment of feet and the pelvis and muscle imbalance, can give rise to this condition.

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Ligament and Meniscus Injury

Strains and tears are common injuries to the four ligaments of the knee. The most common of these is an Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) tear. Typically this occurs when a strong extension (straightening) force is applied to the knee. Tears in the meniscus (cartilage) are also a common injury, and are sometimes seen in conjunction with an ACL tear. A meniscus tear is commonly caused when a twisting force is applied to the knee, usually when the foot is planted on the ground. The menisci can be prone to general wear and tear, particularly in athletes who compete in sports that place a large amount of strain on the knee. Osteoarthritis of the knee refers to degeneration of the menisci. 

Iliotibial Band (ITB) Friction Syndrome 

The ITB is a thick band of connective tissue that runs down the outside of the thigh, inserting just below the knee. In some people the ITB can be excessively tight and produce pain at the outside of knee. Biomechanical factors, such as foot alignment and muscle imbalances are typically the main cause, with environmental factors such as footwear and increased training load and intensity also factors.